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Publication Name World Journal of Hepatology
Manuscript ID 22919
Country of Manuscript Source United States
Received
2015-10-02 13:01
Peer-Review Started
2015-10-04 22:37
To Make the First Decision
2015-10-27 11:32
Return for Revision
2015-11-04 17:20
Revised
2015-11-25 04:07
Second Decision
2015-12-28 14:11
Accepted by Journal Editor-in-Chief
Accepted by Company Editor-in-Chief
2016-01-19 10:28
Articles in Press
2016-01-19 10:28
Publication Fee Transferred
Edit the Manuscript by Language Editor
Typeset the Manuscript
2016-01-21 18:34
Publish the Manuscript Online
2016-01-26 18:22
ISSN 1948-5182 (online)
Open Access This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Copyright © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Article Reprints For details, please visit: http://www.wjgnet.com/bpg/gerinfo/247
Permissions For details, please visit: http://www.wjgnet.com/bpg/gerinfo/207
Publisher Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, 7041 Koll Center Parkway, Suite 160, Pleasanton, CA 94566, USA
Website http://www.wjgnet.com
Specialty Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Manuscript Type Systematic Review
Article Title Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy
Manuscript Source Invited Manuscript
All Author List Mihajlo Gjeorgjievski and Mitchell S Cappell
Funding Agency and Grant Number
Corresponding author Mitchell S Cappell, MD, PhD, Chief, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, William Beaumont Hospital, MOB #602, 3535 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073, United States. mscappell@yahoo.com
Keywords Portal hypertensive gastropathy; Congestive gastropathy; Portal hypertension; Cirrhosis; Cirrhotic; Chronic liver disease; Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding; Esophageal varices; Hepatic fibrosis
Core Tip Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is dia-gnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of variably erythematous, small, polygonal areas surrounded by a whitish, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with portal hypertension of any etiology. The pathophysiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is a prerequisite to develop PHG. PHG increases in frequency with increasing portal hypertension, liver disease progression, duration of liver disease, presence of esophageal varices, and endo-scopic variceal obliteration. Pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation induced by portal hypertension. Gastric mucosa in PHG exhibits greater susceptibility to gastro-toxic chemicals and poor wound healing. Acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding are the only clinical complications. Bleeding is typically mild-to-moderate and rarely fatal. Endoscopic therapy is rarely useful. Pharmacotherapy for acute bleeding includes octreotide with concomitant proton-pump-inhibitor therapy, or alternatively vasopressin. Nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, particularly propranolol, are used to prevent re-bleeding after acute bleeding or for chronic bleeding. Transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt and liver transplantation is ultimate therapies because they treat the underlying portal hypertension.
Publish Date 2016-01-26 18:22
Citation Gjeorgjievski M, Cappell MS. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy. World J Hepatol 2016; 8(4): 231-262
Url http://www.wjgnet.com/1948-5182/full/v8/i4/231.htm
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v8.i4.231
Full Article (PDF) WJH-8-231.pdf
Full Article (Word) WJH-8-231.doc
Manuscript File 22919-Review.docx
Answering Reviewers 22919-Answering reviewers.pdf
Audio Core Tip 22919-Audio core tip.mp3
Biostatistics Review Certificate 22919-Biostatistics statement.pdf
Conflict-of-Interest Disclosure Form 22919-Conflict-of-interest statement.pdf
Copyright License Agreement 22919-Copyright assignment.pdf
Data Sharing Statement 22919-Data sharing statement.pdf
Institutional Review Board Approval Form or Document Institutional_Review_Board_Statement_20151002112748.docx
Non-Native Speakers of English Editing Certificate 22919-Language certificate.pdf
Peer-review Report 22919-Peer-review(s).pdf
Scientific Misconduct Check 22919-Scientific misconduct check.pdf
Scientific Editor Work List 22919-Scientific editor work list.pdf